Resources

The SMART Centres develop resources like training material, guidelines and tools. If you are interested in one of these resources, simply click the button and send us an email with your request and we will send them to you for free.

Manual Business Planning (by Jacana Business Empowerment)
Send me the manual Business planning

This manual is designed to help you prepare a business plan for your proposed business or to improve the plan for your existing business. While developing your business plan you will have a chance to think through and assess your idea. You may find you need to make some changes so think of this also as a review process.

Please also have a look at https://leanstack.com

Manual Financial Planning (by Jacana Business Empowerment)
Send me the manual Financial Planning

In this following session, it is assumed that the entrepreneur has tested the most critical assumptions of the business plan and is confident enough to take the minor risks.

Here we will make a detailed Financial plan to backup the business plan.

This session will start defining some basic terms and as we go on, explain more details and aspects of a financial plan.

Manual Marketing (by Jacana Business Empowerment)
Send me the manual Marketing

Marketing is an important part of starting, expanding and running a business. It does not matter how good your product or service is, if you do not market it in the right way no one will buy it. If customers don’t know about your business, your success will be limited. A good marketing strategy will help your customers understand why your product or service is better than, or different from, your competition.

Manual Well Digging
Send me the manual Well Digging

People make hand dug wells since history. They dig until they find water. A hand dug well has normally a diameter of 0.8 up to 1.5 metre and varies in depth, depending on how deep water is found. When using a ventilator for fresh air during digging, it becomes even possible to dig up to 30 meter or more. A hand dug well can be made in hard soils as well as in soft soils. The soil structure and water level determines how to support the walls.

Manual Rota Sludge drilling
Send me the manual Rota Sludge Drilling

Rota Sludge drilling is one of the most common manual drilling techniques in India. It is named after the rotation of the arm that is connected to the drilling pipe. This rotation makes the soil loose so it can be transport with the drilling fluid (sludge) above ground level.

Rota Sludge works in soft soil with a loose structure such as sand and clay and to some extend sand stone. Gravel and stones smaller than 4 centimeters can be lifted when drilling with 2 inch pipes. This if the stones occur in a loose soil structure, so that they can easily be loosened and removed or pushed to one side. With this method down to some 40 meter can be drilled (the limited factor is the weight of the drilling pipe that are lifted by the lever operators).

Manual Baptist Drilling
Send me the manual Baptist Drilling

Baptist drilling is one of the manual drilling techniques. It is named after the Baptist Missionary, Mr Terry Waller who invented the technique.

This method is limited to non cemented, sedimentary deposits of sand and clay and will not drill through solid bed rock. Some soft rock can be drilled slowly. For gravel or stones from 1 to 3 cm an open bit can be used combined with sludging. A mayor difference compared to other techniques as the Rota Sludge is that this technique uses 1 ¼” PVC pipes on top of the lower steel drill pipe. Therefore this option is very light and can drill down to 100 meters deep.

See also www.waterforallinternational.org. This technique uses a sharp drill bit to loosen the soil and drilling liquid to lift the particles.

Manual Rope Pump A-model
Send me the manual Rope Pump Production (A-model)

A rope pump consists of a wheel and an endless rope with pistons made out of rubber from a car tire or High Density PE. The pistons are attached to the rope at intervals of a meter and fit with a clearance of 1 millimetre in the pump pipe (also called raising main). The rope and pistons are moved by a handle with a wheel and go down to the bottom of the well where they enter in the PVC pump pipe via a guidebox. Between the pistons water is now lifted to the surface and leaves via the horizontal outlet pipe which has a bigger diameter than the pump pipe. The wheel and handle are mounted on a structure on top of the well or borehole. Rope pumps can be used on hand dug wells of  3 meters or more to boreholes with diameter of 2 inches or more. The yield and diameter of the pump pipe depends on the depth of the well:

  • 70 litre/minute with pump pipe 1¼” for water levels to 5 meters
  • until 9 litre/minute with pump pipe ½” until water levels up to 35 meters and variations in between.

The name A model is because of the pump’s structure is in the shape of the letter ‘A’.  This manual gives you details how to produce this model.

Manual Rope Pump Windlass Model
Send me the manual Rope Pump Production (Windless)

Windlass-model rope pump is mounted on poles next to the borehole or hand dug well. The windlass-model is normally used as a family or farm pump and not as a community pump. The windlass-model is much cheaper than the A-model. The yield and diameter of the pump pipe depends on the depth of the well (but are the same as the A-model):

  • 70 litre/minute with pump pipe 1¼” for water levels to 5 meters
  • until 9 litre/minute with pump pipe ½” until water levels up to 35 meters and variations in between.

 

This manual gives you all the details how to produce these kind of models.

Manual EMAS Pump
Send me the manual EMAS Pump Production

The EMAS pump I can be made from different sizes of PVC pipes and a marble. Compared to a rope pump, the EMAS pump produces water under pressure. So you can pump up water to a higher lever then where the pump is. EMAS pumps are also cheaper and easier to make. Yields are however in general less the a rope pump.

There is a ton of useful information and instruction videos at www.emas-international.de also about other low cost technologies. We advise to have a look.

Manual Finalization Well
Send me the manual Well Finalization

This manual will tell you how to continue and how to finalize the well. This manual describes:

  • Construction of the apron, cover and soak pit;
  • Installation of the rope pump;
  • Disinfection of the well water.
Manual Borehole Finalization
Send me the manual Borehole Finalization

This manual will tell you how to continue and how to finalize are borehole. This manual describes:

  • Construction of the apron, cover and soak pit;
  • Installation of the rope pump;
  • Disinfection of the well water.
Manual Brick Cement Tank
Send me the manual Brick Tank

A water reservoir can store rainwater for domestic use or for irrigating a vegetable garden. This manual describes how to make inexpensive cement storage tanks like straw or bamboo mat tank and
brick tanks. A small amount of cement is needed. The walls are reinforced with steel wire. The tank can be placed under a roof to collect rainwater or just beside a well with a pump to store irrigation water.

It is advisable to add a simple ground water recharge overflow pipe to store over capacity of water in the ground, ready to pump it up later.

Send me the manual Ground Water Recharge

Many hand dug wells dry up at the end of the dry season, because more water is taken out than is coming in by the natural recharge. Reasons of limited groundwater recharge are heavy rainfall in short time, (climate change) compact topsoil layers, erosion because of loss of vegetation, etc. Options to increase the recharge of ground water are above or underground dams, the planting of trees and plants such as vetiver grass, making contour canals etc. An other option is the so called “Tube recharge”. This low-cost option combines a manually drilled hole with a drainage tube, a filter and a small pond. Rainwater, that otherwise would run off to rivers or evaporate, thus penetrates into the ground and reaches the first aquifer.

Download the free manual from MetaMeta at www.metameta.nl/publications

Also visit:

If the video does not work, click here.

Tell me more about Mzuzu drilling

Does your hand dug well run dry? Is the wall of your well unstable and dangerous for someone to dig deeper? Often the bottom of your well is than sandy. In that case the Mzuzu drill can help. Learn how it is done.

It is advisable to add a simple ground water recharge system to increase your ground water level. Learn how with the help of SMART Centre Zambia.

Also learn how to make a Mzuzu drill set, recharge your groundwater level, make pumps and install them with other resources on this page.

If the video does not work click here.

Tell me more about making a Mzuzu drill

Mzuzu drilling can be used for deepening an existing hand dug well or making a new “borehole”.

Mzuzu drilling is one of the most affordable methods but not suitable for all conditions.

Many hand dug wells are drying up (due to climate change). Digging deeper is often dangerous, especial when the well wall is unstable and is collapsing. In these cases the soil condition is often ideal for Mzuzu drilling. Let us help you find out if this method could work in your area.
Learn how to use the Mzuzu drill above.

If the video does not work click here.

Tell me more about making and using a Soil punch

A Soil Punch is used at the start of a manually drilled borehole or tube well.
Depending on soil structure, this tool can make a starter hole of 6 meters deep.
Learn more about manual drilling on this page.

If the video does not work click here.

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